Πέμπτη, 21 Απριλίου 2016

Bretton Woods Money Pact Signed (1946)

Bretton Woods Money Pact Signed  (1946)
Στις 27 Δεκεμβρίου του 1945 η τότε "Ελληνική" Κυβέρνηση με τον Αναγκαστικό Νόμο 766 ΦΕΚ Αριθμός Φύλλου 315, Τεύχος Πρώτο, επικύρωσετην συνθήκη του Bretton Woods και το IMF (ΔΝΤ)

Κάντε κλικ ΕΔΩ για να δείτε το ΦΕΚ σε μορφή PDF



http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/bw/Fed_bibliography.pdf
BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS
A BIBLIOGRAPHY
APRIL 1943 - DECEMBER 1945
ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΟ ΚΑΤΑΠΙΣΤΕΥΜΑ
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/bw/Fed_bibliography.pdf
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/brettonwoods_docs.php
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/index.php
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/brettonwoods_images.php
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/brettonwoods_docs.php
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/brettonwoods_docs.php
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/brettonwoods_images.php
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/brettonwoods_images.phpTitle reads: "Bretton Woods Money Pact Signed".
State Department, Washington DC, United States of America (USA).
M/S of Lord Halifax, British Ambassador, signing Bretton Wood Monetary Agreement. He is one of the representatives from 28 countries signing pact. C/U of Fred Vinson, Secretary of the Treasury signing agreement on behalf of President Truman. Vinson then gives a speech establishing world peace. His speech forms sound track for rest of story. Various C/Us of other representatives signing. The names of their countries are superimposed over the shots. We see representatives from Belgium, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Greece and India.
FILM ID:1372.15
Home
Greece became a member of the five institutions that form the World Bank Group in December 1945. It was among the first countries to get a loan to help rebuild the economy after World War II. Today, Greece is a member of the five institutions that form the World Bank Group. The World Bank Group finances projects, designs policies, and delivers programs to end poverty in the developing world.ΤΑ ΙΔΡΥΤΙΚΑ ΜΕΛΗ ΥΠΟΓΡΑΦΟΥΝ ΤΗΝ ΣΥΜΒΑΣΗ ΤΟΥ BRETTON WOODS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ο ΚΥΡΙΑΚΟΣ ΒΑΡΒΑΡΕΣΟΣ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΤΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΤΡΑΠΕΖΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔAΣ ΥΠΟΓΡΑΦΕΙ ΠΑΡΟΥΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΝΔΡΕΑΠΑΠΑΝΔΡΈΟΥ!!!!!!!!!
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipPqGdwpUeQ#t=16
World Bank Group Historical Chronology GREECE

ΔΕΙΤΕ ΤΟ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΟ ΤΗΣ ΣΥΜΜΕΤΟΧΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΑΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΑ ΤΡΑΠΕΖΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΕΣΧΑΤΗ ΠΡΟΔΟΣΙΑ ΟΛΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΠΟΥ ΑΠΟΚΡΥΠΤΟΥΝ ΤΟΝ ΤΕΡΑΣΤΙΟ ΠΛΟΥΤΟ ΤΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΚΡΑΤΟΥΝ ΔΕΣΜΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΕΠΙΚΥΡΙΑΡΧΩΝ…
Ο Ανδρέας Παπανδρέου στην διάσκεψη στο Bretton Woods
http://agp.archeio.gr/
ΟΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΕΣ ΕΚΠΡΟΣΩΠΟΙ………ΚΑΙ ΠΟΙΟΣ ΕΙΝΑΙ Ο ΕΝΑΣ ΑΠΟ ΤΟΥΣ 2 ΤΕΧΝΙΚΟΥΣ ΣΥΜΒΟΥΛΟΥΣ;;;….ΚΑΙ ΠΟΙΑ Η ΗΛΙΚΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΤΟΤΕ;;;
ΑΥΤΟΙ ΞΕΡΟΥΝ 
….ΣΕΛΙΔΑ 299…..
Φ.Ε.Κ. 27-12-1945 ΠΕΡΙ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΟΣ ΤΟΥ BRETTON WOODS.!!
ΣΥΜΒΑΣΗ ΜΠΡΕΤΟΝ ΓΟΥΤΣ 65 ΕΚΑΤΟΜΥΡΙΑ ΔΟΛΛΑΡΙΑ ΚΑΤΕΘΕΣΕ Η ΕΛΛΑΣ ΩΣ ΙΔΡΥΤΙΚΟ ΜΕΛΟΣ ...
https://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/223289368?access_key=key-z9ftpvfdcxaha2leoem&allow_share=true&escape=false&view_mode=scrollhttp://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTARCHIVES/Resources/WB_Historical_Chronology_1944_2005.pdf
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/bw/Fed_bibliography.pdf
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/brettonwoods_docs.php
http://www.britishpathe.com/video/stills/bretton-woods-money-pact-signed
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTARCHIVES/Resources/WB_Historical_Chronology_1944_2005.pdf

http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/bw/Fed_bibliography.pdf
BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS
A BIBLIOGRAPHY
APRIL 1943 - DECEMBER 1945
ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΟ ΚΑΤΑΠΙΣΤΕΥΜΑ
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/bw/Fed_bibliography.pdf
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/brettonwoods_docs.php
ΔΕΙΤΕ ΤΟ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΟ ΤΗΣ ΣΥΜΜΕΤΟΧΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΑΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΑ ΤΡΑΠΕΖΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΕΣΧΑΤΗ ΠΡΟΔΟΣΙΑ ΟΛΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΠΟΥ ΑΠΟΚΡΥΠΤΟΥΝ ΤΟΝ ΤΕΡΑΣΤΙΟ ΠΛΟΥΤΟ ΤΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΚΡΑΤΟΥΝ ΔΕΣΜΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΕΠΙΚΥΡΙΑΡΧΩΝ…
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTARCHIVES/Resources/WB_Historical_Chronology_1944_2005.pdf
ΕΔΩ ΕΔΩ
ΣΥΜΒΑΣΗ ΜΠΡΕΤΟΝ ΓΟΥΤΣ 65 ΕΚΑΤΟΜΥΡΙΑ ΔΟΛΛΑΡΙΑ ΚΑΤΕΘΕΣΕ Η ΕΛΛΑΣ ΩΣ ΙΔΡΥΤΙΚΟ ΜΕΛΟΣ ...
ΦΕΚ 315 ΠΟΙΟ ΚΑΤΑΠΙΣΤΕΥΜΑ;
ΠΑΝΩ ΑΠΟ ΜΙΣΟΣ ΑΙΩΝΑΣ ΨΕΜΜΑΤΟΣ ΤΕΛΕΙΩΣΕ!
http://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/223289368?access_key=key-z9ftpvfdcxaha2leoem&allow_share=true&escape=false&view_mode=scroll
http://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/223289368?access_key=key-z9ftpvfdcxaha2leoem&allow_share=true&escape=false&view_mode=scroll
Ο Ανδρέας Παπανδρέου στην διάσκεψη στο Bretton Woods
http://agp.archeio.gr/
ΟΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΕΣ ΕΚΠΡΟΣΩΠΟΙ………ΚΑΙ ΠΟΙΟΣ ΕΙΝΑΙ Ο ΕΝΑΣ ΑΠΟ ΤΟΥΣ 2 ΤΕΧΝΙΚΟΥΣ ΣΥΜΒΟΥΛΟΥΣ;;;….ΚΑΙ ΠΟΙΑ Η ΗΛΙΚΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΤΟΤΕ;;;http://agp.archeio.gr/media.php?id=68&page=history&lang=gr ΑΥΤΟΙ ΞΕΡΟΥΝhttp://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf ….ΣΕΛΙΔΑ 299…..
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v1.pdf
ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΟ ΧΡΗΜΑΤΟΠΙΣΤΩΤΙΚΟ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑ
Φ.Ε.Κ. 27-12-1945 ΠΕΡΙ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΟΣ ΤΟΥ BRETTON WOODS.!!
World Bank Group Historical Chronology
World Bank History
Produced by the World Bank Group Archives
ΜΙΑ ΟΙΚΟΝΑ ΧΙΛΙΕΣ ΛΕΞΕΙΣ!!!!!!!!!!!!!ΟΙ ΕΚΠΡΟΣΩΠΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΙΔΡΥΤΙΚΩΝ ΚΡΑΤΩΝ ΥΠΟΓΡΑΦΟΥΝ ΤΗΝ ΣΥΝΘΗΚΗ ΤΟΥ BRETTON WOODS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!οι κυβερνησεις της ελλαδας παντα γνωριζαν απο τον Β΄ΠΠ την υπαρξη του καταπιστευματος αφου αυτοι το υπεγραψαν.
Όταν έγινε η διεθνής διάσκεψη στο BRETTON WOODS για τα οικονομικά θέματα, εκπρόσωπος της Ελλάδος ήταν ο Υπουργός Οικονομικών Ιωάννης Σοφιανόπουλος, (μαζί με τον Κυριάκο Βαρβαρέσο).

Στις 27 Δεκεμβρίου του 1945 η τότε "Ελληνική" Κυβέρνηση με τον Αναγκαστικό Νόμο 766 ΦΕΚ Αριθμός Φύλλου 315, Τεύχος Πρώτο, επικύρωσετην συνθήκη του Bretton Woods και το IMF (ΔΝΤ)
http://www.knossopolis.com/2010-09-08-21-43-18/1214-bretton-woods-.html
για να πάρουμε μια γεύση για το μέγεθος της κοροϊδίας:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzbsmEDTELk

Κάντε κλικ ΕΔΩ για να δείτε το ΦΕΚ σε μορφή PDF


Για την ιστορία να δούμε από "Ελληνικής" πλευράς ότι εκτός του επικεφαλής Κυριάκου Βαρβαρέσου ήταν εκεί και ο 25χρονος τότε Ανδρέας Παπανδρέου Μινέικο. Τον βλέπουμε αριστερά με το μαύρο κουστούμι.

για τους δύσπιστους ιδού το λινκ από το επίσημο σαιτ του ιδρύματος Ανδρέα Παπανδρέου: http://agp.archeio.gr/media.php?id=68&page=history&lang=gr
Επίσης αναφέρεται και στο wikipedia. Δείτε το ΕΔΩ
Τώρα ποια η σχέση του αντισυστημικού αντικαπιταλιστή και ΚομμουνιοΣοσιαλιστή Ανδρέα με τους αόρατους κουμανταδόρους του IMF (ΔΝΤ) και της World Bank (Παγκόσμιας Τράπεζας) μπορείτε να το διαπιστώσετε ΕΔΩ και ΕΔΩ
άλλωστε όλοι αυτοί έχουν κοινή φυλετική καταγωγή...Euro Timeline From Bretton Woods Agreement in 1944 to EU ‘Fiscal Compact’
http://www.britishpathe.com/video/bretton-woods-money-pact-signed
Bretton Woods system
Historic Documents and Memorabilia
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/brettonwoods_docs.php
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/images/bretton_cover.pdf
http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/bw/Proceedings_TOC.pdf
ΔΕΙΤΕ ΤΟ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΟ ΤΗΣ ΣΥΜΜΕΤΟΧΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΑΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΑ ΤΡΑΠΕΖΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΕΣΧΑΤΗ ΠΡΟΔΟΣΙΑ ΟΛΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΠΟΥ ΑΠΟΚΡΥΠΤΟΥΝ ΤΟΝ ΤΕΡΑΣΤΙΟ ΠΛΟΥΤΟ ΤΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΚΡΑΤΟΥΝ ΔΕΣΜΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΕΠΙΚΥΡΙΑΡΧΩΝ…
World Bank Group Historical Chronology GREECE
https://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/223289368?access_key=key-z9ftpvfdcxaha2leoem&allow_share=true&escape=false&view_mode=scroll
1944 July 1 – 22 Bretton Woods Conference The Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund were drawn up and adopted at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in a conference of 44 governments. The governments represented were: Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France,Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, USSR, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia. “Representatives of the 44 United and Associated Nations met at the Mount Washington Hotel on July 1. Theoretically they were expected; actually, there appeared to be some doubt. Some of the faucets produced clear water, but not all of the time, a failing for which the free Coca-Cola dispensers on the veranda did not fully compensate. Interior partitions were missing in some of the conference rooms, and although stenographic desks and “appropriate chairs” were furnished as advertised in the pre-conference information bulletin, there was a dearth of appropriate occupants—until a member of the U. S. delegation produced a supply from Washington government agencies. “Many already or subsequently to become well-known names were on the roster of delegates and there were many distinguished faces—including that of a gentleman who, having been swept up into an evening discussion in the delegate’s suite, listened intently, said little, and, when asked to which delegation he belonged, replied, “None. I am the Arthur Murray instructor.” Despite the initial confusion, a prodigious amount of work was done during the three weeks of the conference. Many persons were assigned to both the Bank and Fund committees, which met round the clock, and in addition to committee meetings, there were plenary sessions, where microphones were whisked from speaker to speaker by Boy Scouts, Cub-size.“This expenditure of energy and effort was concentrated not upon the Bank but upon the Fund. This was foreshadowed by the conference invitation, which described the objective as the formulation of definite proposals for an international monetary fund and “possibly” for a bank. Many major issues common to the two proposals were in fact settled in connection with the Fund Articles: capital participations, representation of the Board and voting power, for instance. Indeed, the drafting committee for the Bank Articles took large chunks of the Fund text as a model and adapted them, although occasionally adaptation became adoption. “International concern over the competing currency devaluations and inflationary tendencies that characterized the interwar years and the fear of a post-war economic depression had been the genesis of the conference and the Fund proposal. The Bank, on the other hand, was conceived of primarily as an instrument through which the physical assets of the post-war world might be rebuilt. Development financing was envisaged as an activity in which the Bank would ultimately but not immediately engage. It was the Latin American countries which were principally responsible for the emphasis on development; not being themselves in need of reconstruction, they suggested a requirement that equal amounts be expended for the two objectives, although this suggestion was modified when it was realized that it might in practice have the unintended effect of holding development expenditure down to the level of lending for reconstruction.“In fact, the requirements of reconstruction proved to be very different from what had been envisaged at Bretton Woods, calling for extensive and prolonged U.S. aid in the form of grants, and this in turn helped the Bank to expand its activities in the field of development much sooner and much more fully than had been anticipated. In other respects as well, the actual operations of the Bank differ considerably from those assumed at the Conference. Fortunately, the Articles of Agreement are sufficiently flexible (a more polite word than “vague”) to permit the Bank to perform its task despite changed circumstances.” Bretton Woods Recalled, by Shirley Boskey in International Bank Notes, June 1956.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:20035657~menuPK:56307~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html

1945 December 27 First signatories of the IBRD Articles of Agreement On December 27, 1945. representatives of the first countries to sign the IBRD Articles of Agreement met in Washington, D.C. : Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, China, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Ethiopia, France,Greece, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iraq, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Philippines, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia. The Articles became effective on December 31, 1945 upon signature by twenty-eight governments.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:20035657~menuPK:56307~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html

1957 February 25 Death of Kyriakos Varvaressos Announced Announcement made of the death of Kyriakos Varvaressos, one of the first Executive Directors of the Bank (representing Greece). Varvaressos took an active part in the preparatory work and discussions for the establishment of the Fund and Bank, and represented his country at the Bretton Woods Conference. He later served in the Economic Department and as Economic Adviser on the Economic Staff from 1948.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:20035658~menuPK:56315~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html

1957 September 26 IFC Articles of Agreement Signed by Greece IFC Articles of Agreement signed by Greece, becoming the 53rd member of IFC.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:20035658~menuPK:56315~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html

1962 January 9 IDA Articles of Agreement Signed by Greece IDA Articles of Agreement signed by Greece, becoming the 57th member of IDA.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,print:Y~isCURL:Y~contentMDK:20035660~menuPK:56316~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html

1968 March 18 First Funding for Greece First funding for Greece: Loan 0530 – National Investment Bank for Industrial Development. The loan was used to assist in the financing of the foreign exchange cost of investments by beneficiary enterprises.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:20035660~menuPK:56316~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html

ΔΕΙΤΕ ΤΟ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΟ ΤΗΣ ΣΥΜΜΕΤΟΧΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΚΥΠΡΟΥ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΑ ΤΡΑΠΕΖΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΕΣΧΑΤΗ ΠΡΟΔΟΣΙΑ ΟΛΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΠΟΥ ΑΠΟΚΡΥΠΤΟΥΝ ΤΟΝ ΤΕΡΑΣΤΙΟ ΠΛΟΥΤΟ ΤΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΚΡΑΤΟΥΝ ΔΕΣΜΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΕΠΙΚΥΡΙΑΡΧΩΝ…
1961 December 21 IBRD Articles of Agreement Signed by Cyprus IBRD Articles of Agreement signed by Cyprus, becoming the 74th member of the Bank.
https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/ar/archive/pdf/ar1962.pdf
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTARCHIVES/Resources/WB_Historical_Chronology_1944_2005.pdf

World Bank Group Historical Chronology CYPRUS
1961 December 21 IBRD Articles of Agreement Signed by Cyprus IBRD Articles of Agreement signed by Cyprus,becoming
the 74th member of the Bank.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:20035660~menuPK:56316~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html

1962 March 2 IFC and IDA Articles of Agreement Signed by Cyprus IFC and IDA Articles of Agreement signed by Cyprus, becoming the 61st member of IFC and the 58th member of IDA.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:20035660~menuPK:56316~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html

1963 April 17 First Funding for Cyprus
First funding for Cyprus: Loan 0335 – Power Project. The project financed the construction of a new 60-000 kilowatt extensions and reinforcements of the transmission and thermal power station at Moni on the southern coast, and distribution systems.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:20035660~menuPK:56316~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html

1966 December 25 Cyprus Joins ICSID Cyprus becomes the 23rd member of ICSID.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:20035660~menuPK:56316~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html

World Bank Group Historical Chronology: Introduction
World Bank Group Historical Chronology Produced by the World Bank Group Archives Last updated September 2005
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/ORGANIZATION/BODEXT/0,,contentMDK:50004943~menuPK:64020045~pagePK:64020054~piPK:64020408~theSitePK:278036,00.html
This Week in World Bank History was a weekly featured presentation of historical events from 1947 to 2002 in World Bank history published by the World Bank Group Archives. This feature appeared each Friday in 2002 in the Bank's daily internal online newspaper "The Bank's World Today".
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:21672372~menuPK:4763149~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html
World Bank History
This newsreel excerpt briefly describes the international monetary conference of 1944 (before WW2 ended), held at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. The conference founded the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The fixed exchange rate system created at the conference came under increasing strain in the 1960s and was ended unilaterally by President Nixon in 1971.
1944 Bretton Woods International Monetary Conference
About the Bretton Woods institutions
The Bretton Woods institutions were created in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire in 1944 during the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at the Mount Washington Hotel. At the conference, member nations agreed to create a family of institutions to address critical issues in the international financial system.

International Monetary Fund – An international organization working to maintain global financial stability through technical assistance, training, and loans to member states.

World Bank Group – An international organization consisting of five agencies which provides vital financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world to reduce global poverty.

International Finance Corporation – An agency within the World Bank Group providing financing and technical assistance to the private sector in developing nations.

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency – An agency within the World Bank Group which promotes foreign direct investment in developing countries by providing non-commercial risk insurance to private sector cross-border investors.


International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes – An autonomous international institution within the World Bank Group which seeks to remove major impediments to the free international flow of private investment posed by non-commercial risks and the absence of specialized international methods for investment dispute settlement.


World Trade Organization – An independent international organization providing a forum to negotiate and adjudicate the rules of trade between its member states.


African Development Bank – An institution that works to promote both public and private investment and economic development in Africa, as well as provide financial and technical assistance to its member states.

Asian Development Bank – An institution providing financial and technical assistance to public and private development projects in Asia and the Pacific.


European Bank for Reconstruction and Development – An institution that provides financial and technical assistance primarily to private-sector businesses in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia in order to promote transition to open and democratic market economies.

Inter-American Development Bank – An institution that provides financial and technical assistance to public and private development projects in Latin America.
Read the Original Articles of Agreement for the Bretton Woods institutions
What is the 'Bretton Woods Agreement'
The Bretton Woods agreement is the landmark system for monetary and exchange rate management established in 1944. The Bretton Woods Agreement was developed at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, from July 1 to July 22, 1944.
Major outcomes of the Bretton Woods conference included the formation of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and, most importantly, the proposed introduction of an adjustable pegged foreign exchange rate system. Currencies were pegged to gold and the IMF was given the authority to intervene when an imbalance of payments arose.
BREAKING DOWN 'Bretton Woods Agreement'
One of the proposals of the Bretton Woods conference was that currencies should be convertible for trade and other current account transactions.
Following the end of World War II in 1945, Europe and the rest of the world embarked on a lengthy period of reconstruction and economic development to recover from the devastation inflicted by the war. Although gold initially served as the base reserve currency, the U.S dollar gained momentum as an international reserve currency that was linked to the price of gold.
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